The production of petroleum products from crude oil and other hydrocarbon sources requires the physical and chemical operations and processes in which raw materials or feeds separate the distinct sections, each in the range of the boiling point of the constituent In addition, during these processes, some harmful and harmful substances, such as sulfur compounds, are isolated and desirable from the refinery
Also, in order to obtain products with suitable physical and chemical properties for final consumption as heavy hydrocarbon cutting, it is also necessary to carry out processes which, in addition to respecting the range, boiling point and permitted levels of other harmful compounds, desirable properties, such as the number of petroleum in diesel and many properties Make another hydrocarbons, an alternative to diesel
Regarding the structure, hydrocarbons can be divided into two main aliphatic and aromatic groups. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are divided into broader groups: alkanes (methane 4, CH, alkanes (or unsaturated hydrocarbons), alkenes (or acetylene compounds), and cyclic compounds similar to cycloalkanes, and the like.
Generally, the production method is such that after separating the salts and acids from the crude oil from the well, the remaining hydrocarbons are refined. The refining operation is carried out by distillation of a component of crude oil. light paraffin hydrocarbons form a large proportion of natural gases and light cuts from distillation of petroleum products, which can often be separated by separation of other materials.
The production of heavy paraffin hydrocarbons (high molecular weight oils or paraffins) is considered as a substrate, and due to the low octane number, the hydrocarbons up to C10 can not be used as gasoline, but in contrast Due to the prolonged hydrocarbon chain, they are very important in the synthesis of detergents.